GR Horst Piano Tuner / Technician
Questions and Answers related to pianos and piano tuning:

Q - The most common question from customers is "How often

should I have my piano tuned?"

A - The textbook answer is "every six months". However, there are key factors including temperature, humidity, location, room environmental controls, piano age, usage, and discerning preferences of the piano players. Some pianos tend to stay in tune longer than others. Over time your technician can help you determine the optimal tuning schedule.

Q - “What is the difference between a spinet and a console piano?"

A - Customers often tell me they have a spinet piano when they actually have a console. The photo below is a piano action model that combines both a spinet and a console into a single action model so you can observe the difference. In a spinet, there is a connecting rod that allows the action (moving parts) to hang below the back of the keys. This allowed the total height of the piano to be reduced. This was a popular home piano style for a number of decades from the 40's through the 80's since customers wanted a "smaller piano". However, the sound board size and the string length were reduced. This sacrificed considerable sound quality, clarity. The console piano, as well as the upright, is higher and allows the action to set above the keys. The larger soundboard and string length increases the sound quality. Also note that the height of the piano does NOT change the footprint. The floor-space consumed by a console is not any different compared to a spinet. Over time the popularity of the spinet waned and spinets are no longer manufactured. Several reasons that spinet design has fallen out of favor: Floorspace / footprint is no different from taller designs The sound quality of the spinet is significantly lower Additional effort (cost) is required to adjust (regulate) a spinet Repairs on a spinet are considerably more difficult since the action is not accessible above the keys and the difficult task of removing the action is necessary to perform repairs and adjustments that can be done easily on a console or upright piano. The labor cost to manufacture a spinet is similar to larger pianos. The action diagrams below can be compared to illustrate the difference in the location of the action relative to the keys. Many times repairs can be done on a console or upright piano action without removing the action mechanism. On a spinet the action may need to be removed after first disconnecting the connecting rods from the back of the keys and tying them back to allow removal. In contrast, the upright or console action is easier to remove for service without the need to disconnect keys.

Q - Does a piano have to be tuned to concert pitch (A-440 cycles-

per-second standard)?

A - The piano can be tuned to a different standard although concert pitch is recommended in most cases. Some older pianos may have been designed for a lower frequency, such as A-435. There are some musicians, particularly orchestra leaders, who want to have the piano tuned to A-442. This can be done via a pitch-raise to re- establish the overal tension. However many tuners, designers, and technicians tend to agree that the instrument should remain at A440 since it was carefully designed to sound best considering string length, sizing, downbearing, and structural tension. In some instances, older pianos have rust on the strings or loose tuning pins. In these cases, you may be advised to have the instrument tuned at a lower frequency rather than risk breaking strings or having an unstable tuning. When tuned to another base frequency, the piano will still have all the notes in proper scale relative to the other notes and sound pleasant to play. However, if someone wants to play along on another instrument, the other instrument must be tuned (if possible) with the pitch of the piano or the other instrument will be out of tune with the frequency of the piano.

Q - “What is a ‘Pitch-Raise’ or a ‘Two-Pass Tuning’ and why

would my piano need this procedure?”

A - If the piano has not been tuned for an extended period of time, the pitch may have dropped significantly below concert pitch (A=440 CPS). A piano has approximately 220 strings (some models have a few more some a few less) that will need to be tightened considerably to bring it back up to A-440. This adds considerable tension to the piano's structure and additional pressure onto the soundboard (downbearing). Assume I need to add an average of 10 lbs. of tension to each string. This would represent an additional 2,200 pounds of tension to the instrument. The piano frame and iron plate are designed for this tension. However as each string is tightened, the additional downbearing will cause the pitch on previously adjusted strings to change. Therefore it is not possible to raise the pitch and fine tune the instrument in a single tuning pass. Instead, a "pitch-raise" pass is done first whereby all of the strings are raised to the correct tension levels. After the pitch-raise, the piano can be fine-tuned in the second pass.

Q - “What happens when a string is broken?”

A - Sometimes a string was broken before the tuner was called. Other times, a weak string will break regardless of how carefully it is adjusted. It is quite unlikely that a string will break during tuning unless it had an inherent weakness in the material component or one that has deteriorated over time. There are two solutions when a broken string is encountered. One is to replace the string. The other is to splice the string. There is a process by which a tuner can splice a short piece of new string onto the broken string. If done correctly, the string will be stable and stay in tune. When one of the thick double- wound bass strings break, a splice is a good solution at least as a temporary fix. On older pianos, the tonality of a spliced bass string will sound like the other strings whereas a new string will have a notably different tone. Broken treble strings are often replaced with a new one. Most tuners carry new strings with them and can match up the correct size. Strings size goes from size 13 up to 22 with increments of 1/2 sizes. The tuner has a gage to determine the size of the broken string so it can be replaced with a string of the same size. In the treble section, a string/wire starts at a tuning pin and loops around a hitch pin, at the other end, and comes back around another tuning pin. In other words, if one treble string breaks, you have actually lost two strings. (There are several piano models where this is not the case and each string is individually tied. But in most pianos treble strings loop back to the next tuning pin.) A new bass string is more expensive and must be custom made. The tuner/technician takes measurements to order the custom string replacement. After a string is replaced with a new one, the new string will go out of tune quickly. This either requires return visits to keep tuning up that one string, or, some tuners will leave the replaced string muted and plan to remove the mute/felt and re-tune the string at the next regular tuning. Muting the new string may be a reasonable temporary solution when there is more than one string for that note. String splicing does not have this problem which makes it a good alternative if the speaking length of the broken string is strong enough to allow this splicing process. Note: some tuners have a "universal set" of replacement bass/double-wound strings that can be cut and the windings uncoiled to the proper length for an immediate on-site replacement. However, GR Horst has found these strings to be unacceptable in sound and quality. Therefore, a custom string replacement is his option of choice.

Q - “What does the middle pedal do, and should I be concerned

about having a middle pedal?”

A - This is a good question since the middle pedal does NOT do the same thing on every piano. On a fine grand piano (and several upright models), the middle pedal is called the "Sostenuto Pedal". It sustains only the notes that are being held down when the pedal is depressed, allowing future notes played to be unaffected. On some upright pianos and non-concert-level grand pianos, the middle pedal sustains all notes in the bass register. On other upright pianos, the middle pedal is another type of "soft pedal", that sometimes has a locking option, to play very quietly. This is often achieved by dropping a felt cloth between the hammers and the strings. This may be referred to as the "practice pedal" to lower the volume of play while practicing. There are some pianos that do not have a middle pedal at all. For most players, this is not a concern. However, if a player has become more advanced and is learning music that has indications for the use of a sostenuto pedal ( "S.P.", "Sost. Ped.", or "ThP."), it may be time to consider upgrading to an instrument that has the sostenuto function.

Q - “Why do some notes sound softer/louder or more mellow/harsh

than others?”

A - This is generally caused by one or more things: In a piano that has had a lot of use or is older, the hammer felt is not uniform along the scale. Harder felt will sound loud or harsh while softer felt can be mellow or even too mellow to appreciate. The piano may need "voicing" which is working on the felt to harden some with a special solution and soften others with a special needling tool. The hammers may need to be replaced. Hammers can be filed and voiced to revitalize and achieve a uniform sound across the scale. The piano may need "regulation" which includes a number of fine adjustments for each key. This set of 7 - 9 adjustments, called regulation, together impact how the mechanism on each key works to cause the hammer to strike the strings. If a piano is in need of regulation, this can contribute to inconsistent response and sound. There may be broken parts, or un-glued parts, in the mechanism (the "action") that, although they allow the hammer to strike the strings, limits the range of motion or limit the ability of a hammer to correctly strike the strings. The strings may be worn. This may be more apparent in the bass section where the strings have the additional copper windings. The windings may come loose, corroded or dirty causing each one to sound different. Depending on the issue there may be some stop- gap fixes the technician can implement for certain string problems. However, in many instruments only a new set of strings will completely solve this issue.

Q - “How is a piano tuned?”

A - The piano is tuned by first establishing a pitch reference. For concert pitch, the standard in the United States is A = 440 cycles per second. Tuners generally set A from an accurate pitch source. A pitch fork was the pitch source over many years. However, since a fork will vary slightly due to temperature and other factors, there are electronic sources used today for a consistent accuracy. After the reference pitch has been set on one note, the tuner can set each note in the rest of an octave to the correct frequency by listening to the relative differences between the notes of the scale. The tuner listens to certain intervals and the partials (harmonics) to accurately set the pitch of the other notes in a central octave (the “temperament"). Common intervals used in tuning include fourths, fifths, major and minor thirds, sixths, octaves, and even tenths and seventeenths.

Q - “Is a piano tuned by ear or electronically?”

A - Most tuners learned to tune the piano "by ear" (aurally) after first setting a single starting pitch, usually A, from a tuning fork or electronic source. Every piano, even those of the same model and design, have a few differences called "inharmonicities" due to variations in the components. These are accounted for by the tuner who carefully listens to tuning intervals and setting each note accordingly. Over time, the technology and software has been developed to do much of this providing a visual reference on an electronic tuning device. Aural vs. electronic tuning remains a point of discussion regarding whether the piano can be tuned as well electronically compared to aurally. In my experience I have found it beneficial to use both in tandem by following an aural process but referring to the electronic tuning device (EDT) and, at times, noting a difference. Of course the ear is the final judge if the electronic device offers disagreement. Also note that the unisons (much of the piano has 3 strings per note/key) are tuned by ear regardless of whether an electronic aid is utilized. For example, after two of the three strings are muted, one string is set to the correct pitch. Then the other two strings are each tuned, one at a time, to match the tuned string. This step of matching the other two strings is done by ear regardless of how the pitch of the first string was determined.

Q - “What are "false beats?"

A - A "beat" is what you hear when the vibrations / frequency of one string slightly exceeds those of another. When one string is vibrating at 440 beats a second and the other at 439, you can hear one beat per second as the vibrations of one string overtakes the other. When a particular string has what is referred to as a "false beat", listening to that single string will sound similar to hearing two strings that are out of tune with each other. Many pianos have some strings that, due to variance in the material or piano structure, produce a false beat. If it is not extreme, the player may not notice and the tuner may even be able to compensate in the tuning process or address the cause.

Q - “Why do some keys stick or

not work at all?”

A - In some cases, the actual key sticks and does not move properly. This is a more common problem when you notice "sticky keys". There is a pin under and front of the key and one at the center of the key. One or both of these can become tight due to wood swelling or pin corrosion. In some cases the key itself can actually break. In other situations, there may be a broken or sticking part in the action mechanism. The tuner / technician can determine the cause and correct the problem. Many times, sticky keys are not difficult to fix but there are situations where a part breaks and must be replaced. This requires replacement parts and additional repair time to dismantle the piano to replace or repair the broken part.

Q - “What can make it difficult for the piano tuner to tune the


A - Tuning requires a lot of listening to small variances in the sound of the strings as the tuner listens compares the string fundamental frequency and partials (what some musicians call “harmonics” or overtones”). Below is a list of a few things that can make it difficult to hear the piano during tuning: Running water a type of "white noise" * that masks the ability to clearly distinguish one frequency from another. Therefore, washing dishes while I'm tuning can be a problem. (White noise contains all frequencies together. It may be described by the listener as "a hissing sound") Ceiling fan will make the sound of a piano string waiver making it difficult to determine accurately when strings are in tune. Vacuum cleaner noise is similar to running water. The high voices of excited young children (Yes I love kids ... but a high screech just when you are bringing a string into pitch can set me back a bit while my ears readjust.) Lots of noisy vehicles going by (not much you can do about this). Rattling noise of someone reading a newspaper. This is a lot like the white noise of a fan or running water. Video game sounds generally make tuning quite difficult. Note that video games usually have a quiet mode that can be activated. A TV may or may not hamper the tuning. It depends on the audio content of the program. Much of the time a normal TV program at reasonable volume is not a problem. Music programs or game shows with a lot of bell sounds can be a significant problem. A small dog barking with a high-pitched bark. Dogs usually get used to me quickly and may be better off in the room with me than in another room barking and whining. On rare occasions, a pet bird has wanted to chirp along. This is quite amusing ... for about thirty seconds. But then the cage has to be covered or moved so tuning can continue. Playing another musical instrument or listening to music is obviously going to conflict with tuning. Don't be offended if I request something be changed to alter the noises while I'm tuning. After all, you don't want your piano to be tuned to sound like a barking dog or a video game :)

Q - “What can cause a piano to be a difficult one to tune?”

A - If the piano is older or has been in a harsh environment, the tuning pins can become loose. If the tuning pins don't stay where you put them, the strings obviously cannot stay on pitch. If a piano has not been tuned for an extended period of time it may take additional time and effort to tune. Sometimes a piano with loose pins can be tuned at a lower overall pitch although it could not be pulled up to concert pitch due to loose pins inability to handle higher tension. If a piano has rusty strings that break when tuning, it becomes quite apparent that the piano may not be tunable. Strings on pianos that have seen better times, tend to emit a sound that is not clear and steady. The smaller pianos tend to exhibit this condition more than larger ones. An older piano or one that has not been serviced for many years may develop an impure sound that makes tuning difficult and playing less pleasant. Your tuner may be able to tune the instrument so it sounds reasonable to play although it is no longer capable of the clear tones of a newer instrument.

Q - “What if the tuning pins are so loose that my piano cannot be


A - It's not uncommon to encounter tuning pins that are so loose that they turn themselves back as soon as I let go of the tuning lever. There is a special chemical treatment that a tuner/technician can apply to stabilize old and loose tuning pins. If it needs to be done, it is usually done to all tuning pins during the same appointment. The solution involved must be handled carefully since it could damage other parts. It requires an appointment to apply the treatment and a follow-up appointment to tune the piano. Also note that it has an unpleasant odor and should be done when the weather is warm enough to open windows for good ventilation. If your piano is in this condition, the option can be discussed to determine if it is an appropriate remedy for your instrument.

Q - “How long will a piano last?”

A - There are many types of pianos. Over the past ~150 years there have been roughly 12,000 different brand names on pianos. I have tuned pianos that are well over 100 years old that are still in playable condition due to proper tuning, maintenance, and the environment where they were kept. I have also tuned ~30 year old instruments that have become quite useless due to quality issues, conditions where the piano has been stored, or lacking general tuning and maintenance. Generally speaking, a decent acoustic piano will easily last several generations if cared for properly.

Q - “What does a piano technician do in addition to piano tuning?”

A - The technician can repair technical issues that keep a piano from functioning as it was designed. For example the piano technician is trained to handle necessary repairs and adjustments so that: all piano keys respond appropriately to the player’s touch each key resets itself quickly and completely for the next strike of the key / string the tone of each note is similar without some being bright and others dull. This is called “voicing keys are all level at the same key height hammers start to travel toward the strings, without delay, as the key is pressed. (When the response is not immediate, this is referred to as “lost motion”) dampers stop the sound immediately and quietly when the key is released each pedal should function as designed and be free of rattles and squeaks. The pedal response should be without delay. missing, worn, or broken parts are fixed or replaced humidity inside the instrument is controlled by a system installed in the piano
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